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The author has been particularly disappointed by the illogicality of the present chromosomal (chromatin-chromosome) terminology based on, or inferred by, two terms, Chromatin (Flemming 1880) and Chromosom (Waldeyer 1888), both inappropriately ascribed to a basically non coloured state.
referring to the term chromatin, which was introduced by Walther Flemming.
If these structures are manipulated incorrectly, through processes known as chromosomal instability and translocation, the cell may undergo mitotic catastrophe and die, or it may unexpectedly evade apoptosis, leading to the progression of cancer.
Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting in an X-shaped structure.These are circular structures in the cytoplasm that contain cellular DNA and play a role in horizontal gene transfer.the DNA is often densely packed and organized; in the case of archaea, by homology to eukaryotic histones, and in the case of bacteria, by histone-like proteins.DNA condensation of the duplicated chromosomes during cell division (mitosis or meiosis) results either in a four-arm structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends.Chromosomal recombination during meiosis and subsequent sexual reproduction play a significant role in genetic diversity.
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Diagram of a replicated and condensed metaphase eukaryotic chromosome.